Simultaneous multi-channel ultrasound detection via phase modulated pulse interferometry.

The acoustic setup used to test the performance of PM-PI.

© 2019 Optics Express, OSA publishing.

Abstract
In optical detection of ultrasound, resonators with high Q-factors are often used to maximize sensitivity. However, in order to perform parallel interrogation, conventional interferometric techniques require an overlap between the spectra of all the resonators, which is difficult to achieve with high Q-factor resonators. In this paper, a new method is developed for parallel interrogation of optical resonators with non-overlapping spectra. The method is based on a phase-modulation scheme for pulse interferometry (PM-PI) and requires only a single photodetector and sampling channel per ultrasound detector. Using PM-PI, parallel ultrasound detection is demonstrated with four high Q-factor resonators.

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A schematic drawing of the PM-PI.

Fig. A schematic drawing of the PM-PI system used in this work to interrogate 4 resonators, implemented with π-phase shifted fiber Bragg gratings (π-FBGs). A wideband pulse laser with band-pass filters (BPFs) and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) create a source with a high spectral power density and sufficient bandwidth to cover the spectra of all the resonators. The modulation unit is an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), composed of optical fiber couplers (FC) and a phase modulator (PM). The input phase signal to the PM, shown in the top-right plot, alternates between two values with a difference of 𝜋/2. For each phase value, the pulses interfere differently at the output of each resonator depending on the phase difference in the MZI for the specific resonance wavelength of that resonator. The bottom-right plot, shows a typical voltage signal measured for one of the resonators, which alternates between two states that correspond to the two phase values. As the bottom-right plot shows, in the current implementation, the duration of each phase value delivered to the PM corresponded to 5 laser pulses. We note that the limited bandwidth of our measurement did not allow full separation between the pulses in the bottom-right plot.

Yoav Hazan and Amir Rosenthal. 
Optics Express Vol. 27, Issue 20, pp. 28844-28854 (2019) https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.27.028844

 

Enhanced Sensitivity of Silicon-Photonics-Based Ultrasound Detection via BCB Coating.

Sio and Bcb over clading

© 2019 IEEE Photonics Journal

Impact Statement:
This paper gives a solution to one of the fundamental limitations of silicon-photonics based ultrasound detectors: the low photo-elastic response of silicon and silica. By using a BCB over-cladding, 5-fold increase in the acoustic sensitivity is achieved. We additionally provide a detailed analysis of the sensing mechanism, quantifying the different effects that contribute to the enhanced sensitivity.
Abstract:
Ultrasound detection via silicon waveguides relies on the ability of acoustic waves to modulate the effective refractive index of the guided modes. However, the low photo-elastic response of silicon and silica limits the sensitivity of conventional silicon-on-insulator sensors, in which the silicon core is surrounded by a silica cladding. In this paper, we demonstrate that the sensitivity of silicon waveguides to ultrasound may be significantly enhanced by replacing the silica over-cladding with bisbenzocyclobutene (BCB)-a transparent polymer with a high photo-elastic coefficient. In our experimental study, the response to ultrasound, in terms of the induced modulation in the effective refractive index, achieved for a BCB-coated silicon waveguide with TM polarization was comparable to values previously reported for polymer waveguides and an order of magnitude higher than the response achieved by an optical fiber. In addition, in our study, the susceptibility of the sensors to surface acoustic waves and reverberations was reduced for both TE and TM modes when the BCB over-cladding was used.

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setup schematic

Fig. – The measurement setup. For each of the polarizations, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer was constructed, where in each of the interferometer arms a chip with a different over-cladding material (BCB or silica) was connected. An ultrasound transducer was used to generate acoustic waves that impinged on only one of the chips, which were separated by more than 10 cm.

Resmi Ravi Kumar, Evgeny Hahamovich, Shai Tsesses, Yoav Hazan, Assaf Grinberg, Amir Rosenthal. IEEE Photonics Journal ( Volume: 11 , Issue: 3 , June 2019 )

Noise reduction in resonator-based ultrasound sensors by using a CW laser and phase detection.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

The detection of ultrasound via optical resonators is conventionally performed by tuning a continuous-wave (CW) laser to the linear slope of the resonance and monitoring the intensity modulation at the resonator output. While intensity monitoring offers the advantage of simplicity, its sensitivity is often limited by the frequency noise of the CW laser. In this work, we develop an alternative CW technique that can significantly reduce measurement noise by monitoring variations in the phase, rather than intensity, at the resonator output. In our current implementation, which is based on a balanced Mach–Zehnder interferometer for phase detection, we demonstrate a 24-fold increase in the signal-to-noise ratio of the detected ultrasound signal over the conventional, intensity-monitoring approach.[Read more…]

Signals detected using the IM and PM scheme

Fig. – Signals detected using the IM and PM interrogation methods with an optical power of 0.1 mW. In the PM measurement, the OPD was set to zero to maximize the SNR.

Lucas Riobó, Yoav Hazan, Francisco Veiras, María Garea, Patricio Sorichetti, and Amir Rosenthal.  Optics Letters Vol. 44, Issue 11, pp. 2677-2680 (2019) •https://doi.org/10.1364/OL.44.002677
© 2019 Optical Society of America

The Impulse Response of Negatively Focused Spherical Ultrasound Detectors and its Effect on Tomographic Optoacoustic Reconstruction.

The Impulse Response

source: © 2019  IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging. 

In optoacoustic tomography, negatively focused detectors have been shown to improve the tangential image resolution without sacrificing sensitivity. Since no exact inversion formulae exist for optoacoustic image reconstruction with negatively focused detectors, image reconstruction in such cases is based on using the virtual-detector approximation, in which it is assumed that the response of the negatively focused detector is identical, up to a constant time delay, to that of a point-like detector positioned in the detector’s center of curvature. In this work, we analyze the response of negatively focused spherical ultrasound detectors in three dimensions and demonstrate how their properties affect the optoacoustic reconstruction. Our analysis sheds new light on commonly reported experimental reconstruction artifacts in optoacoustic systems that employ negatively focused detectors. Based on our analysis, we introduce a simple correction to the virtual-detector approximation that significantly enhances image contrast and reduces artifacts.  [Read more…]

The Impulse Response

Fig. (a) The geometry of the negative acoustic lens studied with full
acoustic simulations. The speed of sound of the surrounding medium and lens
material were 1500 m/s and 2757 m/s. respectively. (b) The detected acoustic
signals obtained when the lens was acoustically matched to the surrounding
medium (solid-blue curve) and when its acoustic impedance was 1.xx times that
of the surrounding medium (dashed-red curve), leading to internal reflections
in the lens structure. The reflection from the detection surface was 50% of the
pressure signal. 

Gilad Drozdov, Ahiad Levi, Amir Rosenthal.
IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging.DOI: 10.1109/TMI.2019.2897588